Yet, a current lack of standardised measurements science and protocols impedes the wider acceptance of industrial AM. Few companies can afford to develop their own internal foundations for qualification of materials, processes, and parts built with AM .
- Statistically-based qualification, based on extensive and expensive empirical testing;
- Equivalence-based qualification, achieved through moderate testing to demonstrate a new material or process is equivalent to a previously qualified material or process;
- Model-based qualification, where a material’s or process’ performance is demonstrated in a computer model and demonstrated with minimal testing.
Selective laser melting
GE  demonstrated the successful certification of GE9X T25 Sensor and the LEAP Fuel Nozzle without the need for new qualification standards.
Direct laser deposition
- source qualification;
- approval of deposition or deposition/geometry parameters, with mechanical test samples produced to cover the processing space and geometrical parameters;
- production qualification by destructive testing.
1. D.L. Bourell, M.C. Leu, and D.W. Rosen, Roadmap for Additive Manufacturing: Identifying the Future of Freeform Processing (2009).
2. C.B. Williams, T.W. Simpson, and M. Hripko, NIST Technical Note 1823—Additive Manufacturing Technical Workshop Summary Report (2013).
3. Energetics Incorporated, Measurement Science Roadmap for Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing—Workshop Summary Report (2013).
4. J.M. Waller, B.H. Parker, K.L. Hodges, E.R. Burke, J.L. Walker, and E.R. Generazio, Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing State-of-the-Discipline Report,(2014)
5. M. SEIFI, A SALEM, J BEUTH, O HARRYSSON, and J J. LEWANDOWSKI, Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing JOM, Vol. 68, No. 3, 2016
7. C.A. Brice, Proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Integrated
Computational Materials Engineering, ICME (2011),
8. J.E. Duven, Advisory Circular 25.621-1: Casting Factors
(2014), pp. 1–11.
12. D.H. Abbott, SAE Specification Summit (2015).