In Electron-beams systems, the back-scatter of electrons at the layer surface produces local electrical charge build-up and electrostatic ejection of particles from the powder bed: ’smoking’.
Although the exploitation of AM technologies continues to accelerate, a key barrier to adoption of AM is the need for in-process monitoring and process control [1, 2].
Equivalence-based and model-based certifications require reliable data set to validate complex multi-physics models. To move towards the certify-as-you-build scheme, industries call for sound in-situ process monitoring and quality control.
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