Additive manufacturing (AM) makes objects from three-dimensional (3D) models. Parts are fabricated by adding material layer-by-layer as opposed to traditional subtractive manufacturing methodologies. This post presents a new solid-state technique of friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) based on friction stir welding (FSW) and used to build an Al-based component .
Friction stir additive manufacturing is a new environmentally friendly, energy-effective solid-state process technology based on friction stir welding. Recent publications show a definite potential to fabricate lightweight materials with high structural performances [2,3]. FSAM has the potential to attain efficiently Mg-based components with high structural performances through controlling the microstructures .
During FSAM, a rotating tool, consisting of a pin and a shoulder, is slowly inserted into the surfaces of the plates to be joined. It subsequently moves forward along the joint line.
Frictional heat between the rotating shoulder and the workpiece provides the required heat to join aluminum substrates.
The rotational pin motion creates a circulatory flow of plasticised material at the pin interface and generates enough deformation heat to form a weld nugget. The weld macro-shape depends of the pin shape. The rotation combined to the traverse movement of the pin subject the plasticized materials situated directly below the shoulder to extrusion mechanisms.
As the metal substrates do not melt and recast as such, internal porosities and solidification defects can be efficiently avoided.
 Mao Yuqing, Ke Liming, Huang Chunping, Liu Fencheng, Liu Qiang, Formation characteristic, microstructure, and mechanical performances of aluminum-based components by friction stir additive manufacturing, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, DOI 10.1007/s00170-015-7695-9
 Dilip JJS, Babu S, Varadha Rajan S, Rafi KH, Janaki Ram GD, Stucker BE (2013) Use of friction surfacing for additive manufacturing. Mater Manuf Process 28:1–6
 Dilip JJS, Janaki Ram GD, Stucker B (2012) Additive manufacturing with friction welding and friction deposition processes. Int J Rapid Manuf 3(1):56–69
 Palanivel S, Nelaturu P, Glass B, Mishra RS (2015) Friction stir additive manufacturing for high structural performance through microstructural control in an Mg basedWE43 alloy. Mater Des 65:934–952
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