AM Technologies for medical applications
1. Anatomical models to be used for 1) pre-operative planning and 2) education and training 
2. Surgical instruments used in 1) pre-operative planning and 2) during operations
3. Implants and prostheses, organ and tissue printing.
Let’s focus here on the 3rd topic.
Implants and prostheses
As well as guides and templates that may assist with implant insertion or surgical technique, AM can produce implantable materials that can be manufactured in-house and left inside the patient as part of the surgical repair or fixation. The technology lends itself well to the production of precise and often bespoke implants.
Cosmetic and plastic surgery
Even printed scaffolds are now being developed, into which cells may infiltrate that can be used for implants [10, 11]. Similar work also shows promising results, with construction of bespoke scaffolds to perfectly reproduce healthy bone structure to counter pathological defects. New composite materials for 3D printing of implants are currently being developed. These have been found to be a viable alternative to patient specific ceramic bone substitutes.
 Malik HH, Darwood ARJ, Shaunak S, Kulatilake P, El-Hilly AA, Mulki O, Baskaradas A, Three-Dimensional Printing In Surgery: A Review Of Current Surgical Applications, Journal of Surgical Research (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2015.06.051
 Dean D, Min KJ, Bond A. Computer aided design of large-format prefabricated cranial plates. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 2003;14(6): 819-832.
 Kim B-, Hong K-, Park K-, Park D-, Chung Y-, Kang S-. Customized cranioplasty implants using three-dimensional printers and polymethyl-methacrylate casting. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 2012;52(6): 541-546.
 Reitemeier B, Gotzel B, Schone C, Stockmann F, Muller R, Lexmann J, et al. Creation and utilization of a digital database for nasal prosthesis models. Onkologie 2013;36(1-2): 7-11. Available from: doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000346668
 Ciocca L, De Crescenzio F, Fantini M, Scotti R. CAD/CAM and rapid prototyped scaffold construction for bone regenerative medicine and surgical transfer of virtual planning: A pilot study. Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 2009;33(1): 58-62.
 fripp design http://www.frippdesign.co.uk/problems-solved/the-wellcome-trust/
 Zopf DA, Hollister SJ, Nelson ME, Ohye RG, Green GE. Bioresorbable airway splint created with a three-dimensional printer. New England Journal of Medicine 2013;368(21): 2043-2045. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1206319
 Lalan S, Pomerantseva I, Vacanti JP. Tissue engineering and its potential impact on surgery. World journal of surgery 2001;25(11): 1458-1466.
 Wang X, Schroder HC, Grebenjuk V, Diehl-Seifert B, Mailander V, Steffen R, et al. The marine sponge-derived inorganic polymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, as morphogenetically active matrices/scaffolds for the differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells: Potential application in 3D printing and distraction osteogenesis. Marine Drugs 2014;12(2): 1131-1147.
 Khalyfa A, Vogt S, Weisser J, Grimm G, Rechtenbach A, Meyer W, et al. Development of a new calcium phosphate powder-binder system for the 3D printing of patient specific implants. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 2007;18(5): 909-916.